This hand-made lino print is based on an 18th century statuette by Falconet and images of Gunnera found on the web. Gunnera, or ‘giant rhubarb,’ is found near ponds and rivers as it likes a lot of water, so it seemed appropriate for this nude lady dipping her toe in the water.
Not a perfect print, but I have yet to settle in my mind how perfect hand-made prints ought to be. There is some charm in what the Japanese call wabi-sabi, which according to Wikipedia is ‘a world view centred on the acceptance of transience and imperfection.’ In this and similar artist’s prints I am aiming for near-perfection in the nude figure, emphasising the pure line and form, and am more tolerant of accidental effects in the foliage or landscape.
This print will be available on my Etsy site when I have time to edition it.
I am finding that an oil-based ink gives a more even result than water-based, without having to put the print under undue pressure in the press. Too much pressure can blur the edges of the image, and the joy of lino depends on crisp simplicity.
With oil-based ink, if the lino is damp then the ink does not take well, so I clean the block with a little white spirit or methylated spirit before drying it and applying the ink. I need a new roller as the one I have is past its best.
I hope to post a print on high-quality Japanese paper soon, when I shall then edition it for sale on Etsy. Watch this space!
This is an A4-size lino block (approximately 21x30cm), partly carved. You can see my search lines in pencil. I first drew her skinnier than she is in Boucher’s drawing, and looking critically at my drawing compared with his I came to better appreciate the Rococo taste for, let us say, more substantial women.
Having drawn the image in pencil I then went over the important lines with a fine-liner and then with a brush and ink. This means I have a pretty good idea of what the finished print will look like. In the image shown I have begun to carve out the face and some other key areas. I like to do the face first, because if that is wrong the rest might as well be thrown away.
I stole this image from a painting in the style of Jaques Charlier called The Adorning of Venus. My version is intended to be both serious and playful.
I had to find the essential lines in the original painting in order to reduce it to a lino print in one colour. No fudging is possible. Each line is either there or it isn’t. Of course, one has to use lines also to imply what isn’t shown, thus for example her lower lip is implied by the upper lip and the shadow under the lower lip, and flowers are suggested by the edges of petals. As in my earlier attempts at this genre, in copying one comes to appreciate the skill of the original artist not just in representation but also in composition.
The original painting displays the same contrast of light body against a dark background, but with a diaphanous cloth caressing the sitter’s naked form. While I have copied the general structure of the folds of the material, I have taken a few playful liberties with it, in order to create some wave-like patterns, almost as if she is Venus being reborn from the sea.
On the male and female gaze
Not infrequently one comes across essays on the internet and elsewhere questioning the depiction of the female nude in art, and discussing the ‘male gaze,’ usually with the implication that there is something wrong with it. There is of course a huge historical imbalance in terms of the number of depictions of female nudes in art in relation to the number of female artists, at least until the present century. There are also serious political and social questions around traditional depictions of women as passive and disempowered, politically, socially, sexually and economically.
I would argue, though, that art seeks the beautiful. (‘Art’ exists that doesn’t, but that is not my concern today.) Natural forms are beautiful, and the human body holds a special place among them. A well-executed nude, male or female, has a power hard to replicate in landscape or flower painting, awesome though these other genres can be.
The problem in my view is not so much the male gaze, which is what it is, but the relative absence of the female gaze. We also have many examples in art of male nudes, done mostly by male artists. We already have the male homosexual gaze, for example in the works of Caravaggio and Michaelangelo. There are no doubt historical reasons for the absence of the female artist’s gaze on the male nude, women having been largely excluded from the ateliers and life drawing classes.
Now that it is socially possible for women to attend life classes, representational art is out of fashion, at least in the kind of modern art that attracts financial speculation. Some art schools no longer even offer life classes. I once attended evening life drawing classes near a renowned Art College which boasts several Turner Prize winners among its alumni. Some of the other (as it happens, female) students at the class had come across from the College because they were not offered life classes there.
So now when at last the female gaze on the male form becomes possible, it remains rare. I attribute that largely to a decline in artistic training. It would be a shame, in my view, to succumb to puritanism when a better solution would be the empowerment of the female gaze.
A lino print adapted from Charles-Joseph Natoir’s 1735 study for ‘The Toilet of Psyche.’ Natoir’s sketch is illustrated in Perrin Stein, ‘French Drawings, Clouet to Seurat,’ The British Museum Press 2005 p121. As before, I have tried to reduce the image to its essential lines, in the process learning from one of the masters. The speckles are an accident resulting from the lack of a high-quality roller and from the printing plate resisting the ink, but I like the effect.
This is another small-scale print, image size 6 x 4 inches (15 x 10cm).
Here is Aristide Maillol’s apparently simple wood block print showing Leda and the swan:
I wanted to make my own version, inspired by Maillol’s bold design. However producing my version proved a lot more difficult than I expected.
Leda is sitting on a very large swan, and the swan is the god Zeus in disguise, as lovers of classical mythology will know. The seduction of Leda by a swan has been the subject of many paintings from antiquity to the present day, varying in explicitness from the relatively respectable Leonardo to the very naughty Boucher.
For my lino block I am making a drawing first using Affinity Photo with an Apple pencil on the iPad. For some time it looked very wrong, because Maillol has taken such extreme liberties with the swan. This is my current version which looks almost anatomically plausible:
The next step is to convert this into a lino block and then print it. I found that I could transfer the image onto the lino block, prior to cutting, by printing it the same size as the lino block using an inkjet printer, turning it over face down on the lino and rubbing the back with a hard pencil.
My latest print is yet another mermaid. Why mermaids? My excuse is that they are not only beautiful, echoing as they do the female form (and actually no further excuse is really required), but also symbolise the ability to move between two different worlds.
A mermaid can see fish but she realises at the same time that she is not a fish. Similarly we can (with practice) see out own thoughts and realise we are not those thoughts. We can become aware of the water.
This I scanned into the computer and then printed out again on tracing paper. Using a soft pencil (4B, but 6B would be better) I traced over the lines on the front of the image and then turned it over onto the lino. By going over the same lines again using a hard (H) pencil the pencil marks were transferred to the lino.
This produces a reversed image on the lino so that the final print will be the same way round as the original sketch.
This works well on pale soft lino. (I shall have further comments to make about this product in a later post.) Darker lino might require the use of chalk or soft pastel instead of soft pencil to transfer the image. The lines can be inked over for better clarity and also to modify the drawing if this is desired.
The photograph below shows the soft lino block marked up and mostly already cut. As you can see I used a cutting board to reduce hazards both to the table top and to my fingers. The cutting tools are Japanese wood block tools for softwood and are far superior to the usual lino cutting tools (more on tools later).
Below is the set-up for printing. I am using an inking tray from Amazon although a piece of thick glass would do. A flexible palette knife is handy for spreading the ink. In this case I am using water-soluble printing ink. TIP: if using water-soluble ink, clean both the surface of the lino and the brayer (ink roller) with soap and water or with alcohol because greasy fingerprints will stop the ink from taking.
Next place your paper over the image. I used tracing paper for the first print and used the back of a spoon to rub the back of the paper in order to transfer the image to the paper. If you are using opaque paper you can still check the progress of your work by carefully lifting a corner of the paper – as long as you don’t lift too much you will not affect the registration of the image. You could also use a press but then you will have to do many experiments to get the pressure just right.
As you can see below, the first impression showed up many small areas which should have been cut away. Since these areas take up the ink it is easy to see where corrections are necessary.
Here is the final image, available printed on tracing paper or opaque white paper in a signed limited edition of 30: